Causes and consequences of gender stereotypes

Changing GenderstereotypesA comparison of gender stereotypes held by US citizens across the years, shows significant shifts in how men and women are perceived. The most striking difference emerges in perceptions of the intelligence of men and women. In 1946 about three quarters of the respondents believed that men and women are unequal in terms of their intelligence, by 2018 three quarters thought that men and women have equal intelligence. The authors indicate this shift in gender stereotypes follows from visible changes in the social roles men and women fulfill in society, and the greater participation of women in higher education and high-level functions at work.


Eagly, A. H., Nater, C., Miller, D. I., Kaufmann, M., & Sczesny, S. (2019). Gender stereotypes have changed: A cross-temporal meta-analysis of US public opinion polls from 1946 to 2018. American Psychologist.

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Quadlin, N. (2018). The mark of a woman's record: Gender and academic performance in hiring. American Sociological Review, 83, 331-360.

annual review

Hyde, J. S. (2014). Gender similarities and differences. Annual Review of Psychology65, 373-398.


Stephens, N.M., & Levine, C.S. (2011). Opting out or denying discrimination? How the framework of free choice in American society influences perceptions of gender inequality. Psychological Science, 22, 1231-1236.


Schmitt, M.R., Branscombe, N.R., Postmes, T., & Garcia, A. (2014). The consequences of perceived discrimination for psychological well-being: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 921-948. 

stereotype verwachtingen
Shapiro, J. R. & Williams, A. M. (2012). The role of stereotype threats in undermining girls’ and women’s performance and interest in STEM fields. Sex Roles66, 175-183.