Gender bias in education

Female professors get worse evaluations than male professors

Buser et al 2022

Female professors are rated lower by students than male professors. The study by Buser, Batz-Barich and Hayter (2022) found that when students were asked to rate their professor, female professors were rated lower than their male fellow professors on all aspects. Moreover, fewer students were willing to recommend female professors or courses taught by women.

Read the op blog post about this article on SPSP's website here:

Buser, W., Batz-Barbarich, C. L., & Hayter, J. K. (2022). Evaluation of women in economics: Evidence of gender bias following behavioral role violations. Sex Roles86(11), 695-710. 

Students evaluate male professors higher than female professors

gender bias evaluationStudents evaluate the teaching of professors lower after receiving a bad grade than after receiving a good grade. However, after a bad grade they also show a gender bias: the course of a male professor is evaluated more positively than that of a female professor. Self-affirmations reduce this gender bias.



Hoorens, V., Dekkers, G., & Deschrijver, E. (2020). Gender bias in student evaluations of teaching: Students’ self-affirmation reduces the bias by lowering evaluations of male professors. Sex Roles, 1-15.

Unpacking backlash against female professors

Fisher et al. Unpacking BacklashFemale professors in high status domains (e.g. economics, compute science) appear to experience more backlash than female professors in lower status domains (e.g. philosophy, history) and this is even worse for women without a “chili pepper rating” from Read the full paper here.


Fisher, A. N., Stinson, D. A., & Kalajdzic, A. (2019). Unpacking backlash: Individual and contextual moderators of bias against female professors. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 41, 305-325.

Female professors experience more work pressure and receive more special requests from students compared to male professors

Schermafbeelding 2019 03 08 om 16.56.05

El-Alayli, A., Hansen-Brown, A. A., & Ceynar, M. (2018). Dancing backwards in high heels: Female professors experience more work demands and special favor requests, particularly from academically entitled students. Sex Roles79, 136-150.

Newsletter "Genderbias in teaching"

Read the newsletter (in Dutch) "Genderbias in teaching" of 18 september 2017