This study examines the differences between men and women in initiating negotiations. The analyses show that women are less likely to initiate negotiations than men. The authors showed that the framing of situations is a critical driver of gender differences in initiating negotiations. Women are less likely to initiate a negotiation when the negotiation situation is specifically described as 'opportunity to negotiate'. However, the difference between men and women in terms of initiating negotiations decreases when the negotiation situation is described as 'opportunity to ask'. Describing situations as 'opportunity to ask' is less intimidating for women, as this language is more polite and role-consistent compared to describing situations as 'opportunity to negotiate'. Read the full article here.
Small, D. A., Gelfand, M., Babcock, L., & Gettman, H. (2007). Who goes to the bargaining table? The influence of gender and framing on the initiation of negotiation. Journal of personality and social psychology, 93(4), 600.